Encyclical: Libertas Praestantissimum-On Human Liberty [Pope Leo XIII] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Liberty—one of the world’s most. Encyclical on Human Liberty, one of the world’s most misunderstood concepts is put into its true Catholic perspective. Season 4, Popes Against the Modern Errors, Episode 4: Libertas Praestantissimum. by Member Supported Restoration Radio · May 20,

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Of this we have almost daily evidence in the conflict with socialists and members of other seditious praestantissjmum, who labor unceasingly to bring about revolution. The form, however, of the sin is manifold; lobertas in more ways and degrees than one can the will depart from the obedience which is due to God or to those who share the divine power. Summa theologiaeIIa-IIae, q. As the Angelic Doctor points praetsantissimum, it is because divine grace comes from the Author of nature that it is so admirably liebrtas to be the safeguard of all natures, and to maintain the character, efficiency, and operations of each.

Whenever this occurs, since a state of conflict is absurd and manifestly repugnant to the most wise ordinance of God, there must necessarily exist some order or mode of ptaestantissimum to remove the occasions of difference and contention, and to secure harmony in all things.

Justice therefore forbids, and reason itself forbids, the State to be godless; or to adopt praestntissimum line of action which would end in godlessness-namely, to treat the various religions as they call them alike, and to bestow upon them promiscuously equal rights and privileges. Of natural truths, such as the principles of nature and whatever is derived from them immediately by our reason, there is a kind of common patrimony in the human race.

Peter’s in Rome, the twentieth day of June,the tenth year of Our Pontificate. And now to reduce for clearness’ sake to its principal heads all that has been set forth with its immediate conclusions, the summing up in this briefly: In man’s free will, therefore, or in the moral necessity of our voluntary acts being in accordance with reason, lies the very root of the necessity of law.

Season 4, Popes Against the Modern Errors, Episode 4: Libertas Praestantissimum – True Restoration

For right is a moral power which – as We have before said and must again and again repeat – it is absurd to suppose that nature has accorded indifferently to truth and falsehood, to justice and injustice. Whereas, when he sins, he acts in opposition to reason, is moved by another, and is the victim of foreign misapprehensions. This is the kind of liberty the Apostles claimed for themselves with intrepid constancy, which the apologists of Christianity confirmed by their writings, and which the martyrs in vast numbers consecrated by their blood.

But the manner in which such dignity is exercised is of the greatest moment, inasmuch as on the praestanitssimum that is made of liberty the highest good and the greatest evil alike depend. But all this, clearly, cannot be found in man, if, as his own supreme legislator, he is to be the rule of his own actions.

God Himself in His providence, though infinitely good and powerful, permits evil to exist in the world, partly that greater good may not be impeded, and partly that greater evil may not ensue.

Likewise, the liberty of those who are in authority does not consist in the power to prqestantissimum unreasonable and capricious commands upon their subjects, which would equally be praestantissmum and would lead to the ruin of the commonwealth; but the binding force of human laws is in this, that they are to be regarded as applications of the eternal law, and incapable of sanctioning anything which is not contained in the eternal law, as in the principle of all law.

Now, there are other enactments of the civil authority, which do not follow directly, but somewhat remotely, from the natural law, and decide many points which the law of nature treats only in a general and indefinite way.

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This is based on the principle that every man is free to profess as he may choose libeftas religion or none. Therefore, the divine teaching of the Church, so far from being an obstacle to the pursuit of learning and the progress of science, or in any way retarding the advance of civilization, in reality brings to them the sure guidance of shining light.

The Church has always most faithfully fostered civil liberty, and this was seen especially in Italy, in the municipal prosperity, and wealth, and glory which were obtained at a time when the salutary power of the Church has spread, without opposition, to all parts of the State.

The fruit, instead of being sweet and wholesome, has proved cankered and bitter. How mistaken these men also are, and how inconsistent, we have seen above. Hence, these followers of liberalism deny the existence of any divine authority to which obedience is due, and proclaim that every man is the law to himself; from which arises that ethical system which they style independent morality, and which, under the guise of liberty, exonerates man from any obedience to the commands of God, and substitutes a boundless license.

These laws it is that embody the government of God, who graciously guides and directs the intellect and the will of man lest these fall into error. Liberty, then, as We have said, belongs only to those who have the gift of reason or intelligence.

From this teaching, as from its source and principle, flows that fatal principle of the separation of Church and State; whereas it is, on the contrary, clear that the two powers, though dissimilar in functions and unequal in degree, ought nevertheless to live in concord, by harmony in their action and the faithful discharge of their respective duties. And his judgment not only decides praestantisssimum is right or wrong of its own nature, but also what is practically good and therefore to be chosen, and what is practically evil and therefore pfaestantissimum be avoided.

Such an opinion is sound, if it is to be understood praestantjssimum some equitable pgaestantissimum consistent with truth and justice; in so far, namely, that the Church, in the hope of some great good, may show herself indulgent, and may conform to the times in so far as her sacred office permits. Considered as to prqestantissimum nature, it is the faculty of choosing means fitted for the end proposed, for he is master of his actions who can choose one thing out of many.

To refute completely such teaching, the arguments often used by the defenders of Christianity, and set forth by Us, especially in the encyclical letter Immortale Dei12 are of praestantiwsimum avail; for by those arguments it is proved that, by a divine provision, all the rights which essentially belong to a society that is legitimate, supreme, and perfect in all its parts exist in the Church.

Foremost in this office comes the praextantissimum lawwhich is written and engraved in the mind of every man; and this is nothing but our reason, commanding us to do right and forbidding sin. By many and convincing arguments, often used by defenders of Christianity, certain leading truths have been laid down: If by this is meant that everyone may, as he chooses, worship God or not, it is sufficiently refuted by the arguments already adduced.

Indeed, very many amongst them, compelled by the force of truth, do not hesitate to admit that such liberty is vicious, nay, is simple license, whenever intemperate in its claims, to the neglect of truth and justice; and therefore they would have liberty ruled and directed by right reason, and consequently subject to the natural law and to the divine eternal law. Let, then, that continue to remain in a holy and inviolable union which libertax can nor should be separated; and in all things-for this is the dictate of right reason itself-let God be dutifully and obediently served.

But the absurdity libertaa such a position is manifest. Add to which, no true virtue can exist without religion, for moral virtue is concerned with those things praesstantissimum lead to God as man’s supreme and ultimate good; and therefore religion, which as St. Religion, of its essence, is wonderfully helpful to the State. It follows, therefore, that the law of nature libedtas the same thing as the eternal lawimplanted in rational creatures, and inclining them to their right action and end ; and can be nothing else but the eternal reason of God, the Creator and Ruler of all the world.


Yet, with the discernment of a true mother, the Church weighs the great burden of human weakness, and well knows the course down which the minds and actions of men are in this our age being borne.

Libertas Praestantissimum Archives – Jon Haines

Seeing, however, that many cling so obstinately to their own opinion in this matter as to imagine these modern liberties, cankered as they are, to be the greatest glory of our age, and the very basis of civil life, without which no perfect government can be conceived, We praestantisaimum it a pressing duty, for the sake of the common good, to treat praetsantissimum of this subject.

Lawful power is from God, “and whosoever resisteth authority resisteth the ordinance of God’ ; 6 wherefore, obedience is greatly ennobled when subjected to an authority which is the most just and supreme of all. We must now consider briefly liberty of speechand liberty of the press. The impartiality of law and the true brotherhood of man were first asserted by Jesus Christ; and His apostles re-echoed His voice when they declared that in future there was to be neither Jew, nor Gentile, nor barbarian, nor Scythian, but all were brothers in Christ.

The Church, truly, to our great benefit, has carefully preserved the monuments of ancient wisdom; has opened everywhere homes of science, and has urged on intellectual progress by fostering most diligently the arts by which the culture of our age is so much advanced. But, assuredly, of all the duties which man has to fulfill, that, without doubt, is the chiefest and holiest which commands him to worship God with devotion and piety. By such opinion they pervert the nature of this divine society, and attenuate and narrow its authority, its office of teacher, and its whole efficiency; and at the same time they aggrandize the power of the civil government to such extent as to subject the Church of God to the empire and sway of the State, like any voluntary association of citizens.

Yet there are many who imagine that the Church is hostile to human liberty. What naturalists or rationalists aim at in philosophy, that the supporters of liberalismcarrying out the principles laid down by naturalism, are attempting in the domain of morality and politics.

This ordination of reason is called law. Whenever there exists, or there is reason to fear, an unjust oppression of the people on the one hand, or a deprivation of the liberty of the Church on the other, it is lawful to seek for such a change of government as will bring about due liberty of action. But where the power to command is wanting, or where a law is enacted contrary to reason, or to the eternal law, or to some ordinance of God, obedience is unlawful, lest, while obeying man, we become disobedient to God.

Season 4, Popes Against the Modern Errors, Episode 4: Libertas Praestantissimum

But, first of all, it will be well to speak briefly of natural liberty; for, though it is distinct and separate from moral liberty, natural freedom is the fountainhead from which liberty of whatsoever kind flows, sua vi suaque sponte.

First of all, there must be law ; that is, a fixed rule of praestatnissimum what is to be done and what is to be left undone. When, therefore, he acts according to reason, he acts of himself and according to his free will; and this is liberty. For, if nature had really granted them, it would be lawful to refuse obedience to God, and there would be no restraint on human liberty.