IX Hispana (The “Spanish Legion”) – was one of the oldest and most feared units in the Roman army. Raised by Pompey in 65 BC, it fought victorious campaigns. The most common theory is that it was defeated and destroyed while fighting an uprising in England, however the fate of the Ninth remains the subject of. ???????????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????? Legio nona Hispana; the Spanish Ninth Legion, is a legion of the Imperial Roman army – existing since the late Roman Republic.

Author: Jukora Mazuhn
Country: Peru
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Art
Published (Last): 27 September 2011
Pages: 341
PDF File Size: 10.77 Mb
ePub File Size: 13.47 Mb
ISBN: 531-6-47702-249-7
Downloads: 71925
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Moogule

The crisis caused the emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from the island, but Suetonius’ eventual victory over Boudicca secured Roman control leio the province. These now suggest later conflicts in other theatres as possible scenes of IX Hispana’s demise:. The Ninth Legion’s mysterious disappearance has made it a popular subject for historical fiction, fantasy and science fiction.

The Ninth seems to have especially distinguished itself during the campaign of 24 BC, which may well have been where it received its honorific title ” Hispana ” or ” Hispaniensis. It’s a short, fun read. During this river crossing hiispana Romans met strong resistance by a native army under the joint command of Caratacus and Togodumnus.

So, I did forget to include that around AD there jx two separate sources documenting all existing units at the time, and the IX are not among them. With the SeventhEighth and Tenth legions, the Ninth was among the oldest units in the imperial Roman army. The unknown fate of the legion has been the subject of considerable research and speculation. This left the Legion with mostly cavalry, until legionaries from the Germania provinces reinforced their number.

Mommsen’s thesis was published long hispama the first traces of IX Hispana were found at Nijmegen.

Legio VIIII Hispana

He sent not more than two hundred men, without their proper weapons: In addition, the Icenian nobility were stripped of their family estates and the relatives of the former king treated as slaves. In CE, the Ninth participated in a largely more successful campaign, again against the Brigantes, and at this point they built a stone fortress at Eboracum, now called York. The origin of the legion is uncertain, but a 9th legion seems to have participated in the siege of Asculum during the Social War in 90 BC.

It thus appears that IX Hispana disappeared sometime in the period — According to Tacitus, after the revolt, Legio IX was restored to strength with reinforcements from the German provinces in 65 AD and moved from Longthorpe and Newton-on-Trent to two new bases; the first, a new fortress at Lindum Lincoln and the second, at Rossington or Osmanthorpe.


The years was a time of turmoil within the empire as five would-be Roman Emperors struggled for power. It seems obvious now that I think of it, but isn’t the easiest explanation that the unit got folded or separately reassigned into other units and documentation was lost? After this battle, the soldiers were sent back to Italy to be pensioned off, but in 46, they participated in Caesar’s African campaign. The Forgotten Realm 1st ed. It is possible that elements of Legio IX were taken by Cerialis from Britain to help him support one of the candidates.

The Romans benefited from this arrangement by avoiding the expense of garrisoning the territory; the ‘client king’ or, indeed, queen kept the peace, and was assured wealth and Roman backing against rivals.

The High Empire, A. Not necessarily archaeological evidence, because that’s so hit and miss, but evidence in the way the Romans responded to it with troop movements and campaigns and the foundation of colonies and all sorts.

There are only two written accounts of campaigns that Legio IX is known to have taken part during the Roman occupation, the first was the Boudiccan revolt and the second was with Agricola during his campaigns in Scotland. The Ninth numbered men, not including the auxiliaries leio were attached to the Legion.

Legio IX Hispana

To the Continent However, more recent research has shown that a subunit of Legio IX was at Nijmegen in Germania Inferior, for a brief period after After this, the legion was probably part of the imperial army in the Rhine borderlands that was campaigning against the Germanic tribes.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

After this, the legion disappears from our sources. The new fortress at Lincoln is presumed to have been built by Legio IX because of the number of burials of soldiers of the Ninth found below the fortress.

Or even just a “why do we need to keep this?

LEGIO IX HISPANA – A Detailed History of the Real LEGIO IX HISPANA

Both these lists date from afteras both include the 3 Parthica legions founded by Septimius Severus in that year. This view was popularised by the novel The Eagle of the Ninth in which the legion is said to have marched into Caledonia modern day Scotlandafter which it was “never heard of again”.

Trouble in Hispaha had been brewing since 52 AD when the Queen, Cartimandua, handed over the fugitive leader Caratacus, who had fled to Brigantia in the hope of evading the Romans. The popular version of events – propagated by numerous books, television programs and films – is that the Ninth, at the time possibly numbering some 4, men, was sent to vanquish the Picts of modern day Scotland and marched mysteriously into oblivion, never to return.


The most popular seems to be that the legion encountered some sort of resistance, either in York or coming from Scotland, and was wiped out. It is also possible at this stage, that Legio IX jx combined with another legion for this advance lwgio however, which other legion is not known. Regardless, the Ninth was one of Rome’s venerated legions and its disappearance, which is shrouded in mystery, has captured the imagination of authors and film makers?

After some time spent fighting in Caledonia Scotlandthe legion returns to this fortress to work on rebuilding it, in the year CE. When this was achieved, the Ninth was sent to the Balkans, where it received the surname Macedonica.

During the civil war against Caesar’s fellow- triumvir and jx Pompey, it fought in Hispania in the battle of Ilerda Summer 49 ; later, the soldiers were transferred to Placentia in northern Italy, where they briefly revolted.

Offended, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people. What is certain, however, is that in the confused months after the Roman defeat in the Teutoburg Forest September 9 CEthe legion was in Pannonia, where it is firmly attested in 14, the year of the death of Augustus.

I’m not at all convinced hspana the Ninth Legion was wiped out by British forces. If there were a camp illness, a handful of guys come out the other side of it, head back to Rome, get reassigned, and no one bothers lrgio document it because disease is benign, hey. Caesar loyalists, the tribunes Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius Longinusvetoed ldgio bill, and were quickly expelled from the Senate. Records from that long ago aren’t exactly known for their ability to lgeio. These artifacts have been dated from any time between and CE.

It would hispanw likely that, because he was short of troops, Agricola retained Legio IX in the field until the end of the campaign. The historical record does not tell us what happened to Venutius, but in all likelihood, he did not survive.

The worst and most bestial atrocity committed by their captors was the following. Tacitus particularly singles out Catus Decianus for criticism for his “avarice.

What happened next is unclear. Whatever the true story is about the demise of Legio IX Hispana, the popular fascination with its perceived mysterious and macabre fate will probably never be eclipsed.