The Jominy end quench test. Introduction: The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set. PDF | The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel , which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a.

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The round specimen is then ground flat along its length to a depth of 0. A high hardenability is required for through hardening of large components.

The Jominy End Quench Test

Increasing the austenite grain size therefore decreases the available nucleation sites, which retards the rate of the phase transformation. Effects of alloying and microstructure Example Jominy end quench test data Heat flow simulation Quench test simulation Summary Questions Going further. Take a sample from the furnace and place it on the Jominy test fixtures and observe the cooling pattern.

En 8 is a low hardenability steel when compared with En Boron is a very potent alloying element, typically requiring 0.

The Jominy End Quench Test

The most commonly used elements are Cr, Mo and Mn. You have three steels. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in joimny under a given set of conditions.

Measurement of hardenability Uses of Jominy data: It is typically used with lower carbon steels. The Jominy end quench test is the standard method for measuring the hardenability of steels. Slow quenching speeds are often chosen to reduce distortion and residual stress in components. Structure of En 8, 1 cm from quenched end of Jominy bar. Hardenability depends on the chemical composition of the steel and also be can affected by quencg processing conditions, such as the austenitizing temperature.

However, the jominyy is too small be be commonly used for control of hardenability.

This describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by quenching. Steel compositions are sometimes described in terms of a carbon equivalent which describes the magnitude of the effect of all of the elements on hardenability. The depth from the quenched end, over which martensite is obtained, is then the measure of hardenability. The Rockwell hardness of a metal can also be determined using a similar technique. Structure of En 24 at 5 cm position along Jominy bar.


It is more common to control hardenability with other elements, and to use carbon levels of less than 0. At higher carbon levels, the formation of martensite is depressed to lower temperatures and the transformation from austenite to martensite may be incomplete, leading to retained austenite. A heat treatment that causes steel to harden is so much more than the meer plunging of hot metal into a fluid that is often a liquid. This composite microstructure of martensite and austenite gives a lower hardness to the steel, although the microhardness of the martensite phase itself is still jomny.

The size of the time step is set qquench the maximum allowed while ensuring numerical stability of the simulation. The Jominy Test involves heating a test piece from the steel 25mm diameter and mm long to an austenitising temperature and quenching from one end with a controlled and standardised jet of water.

James Marrow and Dave Hudson. Slower cooling rates occur at the core of larger components, compared to the faster cooling rate at the surface. The test jomin is quickly transferred to the test machine, where it is held vertically and sprayed with a controlled flow of water onto one end of the sample.

The austenite grain size can be affected by other stages in the processing of steel, and therefore the hardenability of a steel also depends on the previous stages employed in its production.

A jet of water emerges from the cone at the bottom, to touch the lower end of the sample.

The recorded hardness depends on the indentation load and the width of the square indentation made by the diamond. The interval is typically 1.

A typical plot of hardness along the length tesst the 10 cm long steel rod. The effect of boron is also independent of the amount of boron, provided sufficient is added, and the effect of boron is greatest at lower carbon contents. Three low alloy steels, which differ only in their carbon content 0.

This method of increasing the hardenability is rarely used since substantial increases in hardenability require large austenite grain size, obtained through high austenitisation temperatures. Increasing the carbon content increases the hardness of steels up to about 0. The steel sample is normalised to eliminate differences in microstructure due to previous forging, and then austenitised.


Increasing the austenite grain size increases the hardenability of steels.

This alternative longer video clip contributed by Oxford Brookes University shows both the transfer of the sample from furnace to Jominy machine, and the jet spraying one end of the sample. Please follow this link if you would like to provide a short review for this TLP. Knowledge of the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select the appropriate combination of alloy and heat treatment for components of different size, to minimise thermal stresses and distortion.

High hardenability allows slower quenches to be used e. The hardness number is usually denoted by HV20 for H ardness V ickers 20 kg, for example. This animation requires Adobe Flash Player 8 and later, which can be downloaded here. The data is shown as Vickers and Rockwell hardness. Similar tests have quencn developed in other countries, such as the SAC test, which uses a sample quenched from all sides by immersion in water.


It is not only necessary to understand the basic information provided from the Jominy test, but also to appreciate how the information obtained can be used to understand the effects of alloying in steels and the steel microstructure.

The hardness variation along the test surface is a result of microstructural variation which arises since the cooling rate decreases with distance from the quenched end.

Jominy End Quench Test

This data can be presented using CCT C ontinuous C ooling T ransformation diagrams which are used to select steels to suit the component size and quenching media. The simulation ignores the effect of heat loss from the sides of the specimen, i. The alloy steel clearly has the highest hardenability, forming martensite to a greater depth than the plain carbon steel. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in a dnd diameter wood-working drill.

After quenching the hardness profile is measured at intervals from the quenched end after the surface has been ground back to remove any effects of decarburisation 0.