Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus. Jean-Louis Baudry, Alan Williams. FILM QUART, Vol. 28 No. 2, Winter, ; (pp. ) DOI. Apparatus theory, derived in part from Marxist film theory, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, was a This effect is ideological because it is a reproduced reality and the cinematic This theory is explored in the work of Jean-Louis Baudry. This is. Jean-Louis Baudry, ‘Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic. Apparatus’, Film Quarterly, 28 (Winter –75), (reprinted in Movies. & Methods.

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The physical confinements and atmosphere of the theater help in the immersion of the subject. Indeed, defining what a film is has proven to be one of the central tropes in film discourse. In fact, this substitution is only possible on the condition that the instrumentation itself be hidden or re- pressed.

It is strange but is it so strange? The use of different lenses, when not dictated by technical considerations aimed at restoring the habitual perspective such as shoot- ing in limited or extended spaces louix one wishes to expand or contract does not lluis [traditional] perspective but rather makes it play a normative role.

The first, attached to the image itself, derives from the character portrayed as a center of secondary identifications, carrying an identity which con- stantly must be seized and reestablished. Some of the same problems as many theories of film and culture of the postwar era including Adorno and Horkeimer and many of the psychoanalytic theories of the 70s that were concerned with the way that cinematic isntitutions influence spectators to seek out viewing pleasures in ways that reflect dominant ideologynamely in that it poses a one-way relationship between the viewer and the filmic text.

The image seems to reflect the world but solely in the naive inversion of a founding hierarchy: Film history shows that as a result of the com- bined inertia of painting, theater, and photog- raphy, it took a certain time to notice the in- herent mobility of the cinematic mechanism.

The central position of the spectator within the perspective of the composition is also ideological. The forms of narrative adopted, the contents, are of little importance so long as identification remains possible. Or, as Manovich puts it: Think of it this way, the consciousness of the individual, the subject, becomes projected upon the film, as both the consciousness and the cinematic apparatus work in similar ways. The article is presented here as a central document in the recent evolution of French film thought.


The relationship between the camera and the subject. However, projection works by effacing these differences.

The reflected is image presents a whole, something the child will continually strive for but never reach. Vrin,p. This occurs, rather, as a sort of proof or verification of that function, a solidification through repetition. Thus the cinema assumes the role played throughout Western history by various artistic formations.

film | The Chicago School of Media Theory

Apparatus theory maintains that cinema is by nature ideological because its mechanics of representation are ideological and because the films are created to represent reality. The relation between the individual frames and the projection would resemble the relation between points and a curve in geometry. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The Language of New Media. Iceological Roberto Efffects W.

Disturbing elements distance the spectator from the film, allowing her to apprehend its ideological processes? Philosophically it asserts that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.

These daguerreotypes eventually gave way to the first louix photographs in the middle of the 19th century, culminating in when Eastman introduced celluloid as the material basis for photography. Engaging the Moving Image. In the simplest instance the cinematic apparatus purports to set before the eye and ear realistic images and sounds. Of course the use of lenses of dif- ferent focal lengths can alter the perspective of an image.

Baudry, Jean Louis Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus

And just as no single technology is the immediate precursor to film, the relations hip between film and photography is not simply evolutionary—the advent of cinema did not spell the demise of photography. It is easy to think of photography jran the antecedent to film; that the relationship between the two is haudry or evolutionary. The projection mechanism allows the differential ele- ments the discontinuity inscribed by the cam- era loyis be suppressed, bringing only the relation into play.

But here we must turn to the relation between the succession of images inscribed by the camera and their projection, bypassing momentarily the place occupied by montage, which plays a decisive role in the strategy of the ideology produced. Ideology is not imposed on cinema, but is part of its nature and it shapes the way the audience thinks.

But this much, at least, is clear in the history of cinema: The Oxford English Dictionarys. But, on the other hand, going back to the first question, one may ask, do the instruments the technical base produce specific ideological effects, and are these effects themselves determined by the dominant ideol- ogy?



Baudry’s Ideological Effects of the Cinematic Apparatus – Sonia’s Sees

Baudry explains how the spectator identifies with the film at two levels: The cinema manifests in a hallucinatory manner the belief in the omnipotence of thought, described by Freud, which plays so important a role in neurotic defense mechanisms. Its mechanical nature not only permits the shooting of differential images as rapidly as desired but also destines it to change position, to move.

The eye is given a false sense of complete freedom of movement. It consists of individual frames, separate, however kouis, from each other in image. Winter,pp. From the very fact that during the mirror stage is established a dual relation- ship, it constitutes, in conjunction with the for- mation of the self in the imaginary order, the nexus of secondary identification.

Thus an increase in ideological value is an increase in mystification. Though mutually dependent from other points of view, decoupage [shot break- down before shooting] and montage [editing, or final assembly] must be distinguished because of the essential difference in the signifying raw material on which each operates: The conception of space which conditions the construction of perspective in the Renaissance differs from that of the Greeks.

Rather there is a continuum which begins with early experiments and devices aimed at presenting images in sequence and includes not only the emergence in the s of an apparatus recognizable as cinema but also the forerunners of electronic image-making. If someone could distill it into plain English, I think I can actually start making sense jfan this essay.

Increasingly films are being edited with non-linear editing programs, which require the analog film stock to be digitized so that the film can be edited on computers. The years of early cinema are marked by disparate, competing technologies, all of which can lay claim to heralding in the modern film and each of which has informed and shaped what eventually became standardized, in the early 20th century, as the modern cinema.

Effecst, What is Cinema? It is on this point and in function of the elements which we are trying to put in place that a discussion of editing could be opened. Leave a Reply Cancel efffcts Your email address will not be published.