A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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Hurrian and the Hurrians – Mark Ronan

Archeologists have discovered the texts of numerous spells, incantations, prophecies and letters at sites including Hattusha hurriam, MariTuttulBabylonUgarit and others. The two languages simply have a common source.

The language was widely spoken in what is now northern Syria, northern Iraq, and southeast Turkey, and by the end of the sixteenth century BC, the kings of Mittani had united most Hurrian cities under their control. The resulting “morpheme chain” is as follows: Hurrian languageextinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire c. Verb forms can also take other enclitic suffixes; see ‘particles’ below.

Within noun phrasesthe noun regularly comes at the end.

It is around this time that other languages, such as the Hittite language and the Ugaritic language also became extinct, in what is known as the Bronze Age collapse. Indo-European languagesfamily of languages spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of Southwest and South Asia. During the fifteenth century BC there was a struggle with Egypt over control of Syria, but shortly after BC, Hurrians and Egyptians made a peace treaty, and there were dynastic marriages.


All cardinal numbers end in a vowel, which drops when an enclitic is attached. Between the suffix of the dependent noun and the case ending comes the article, which agrees with the referent in number, for example, with an adjective:.

This is where most Hurrian texts have been found, far removed from their origin. These show clearly the cosmopolitan character of the city. The f of the genitive and dative endings merges with a preceding p or t giving pp and tt respectively, e.

Hurrian language

In the indicative this suffix is mandatory, but in all other moods it is optional. The source language of similar sounding words is thus unconfirmable. It remains, however, when a consonant-initial pronoun is attached: The distinction between singular and plural in the third person is provided by the suffix -twhich comes directly after the tense marker.

SA indicates morphemes added through Suffixaufnahmedescribed below. It is generally believed that the speakers of this language originally came from the Armenian Highlands and spread over southeast Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.

For the subject of a transitive verb, however, the ergative case is used. Thank You for Your Contribution! However, the latter should not….

As can be seen from the table, Hurrian did not possess a voiced – voiceless distinction. Historical background of ancient Anatolia In history of Mesopotamia: Hurrian and the Hurrians The Hurrian language was written during a year period.

The eastern territory was gradually taken over by Assyria, which moved Hurrians out and settled Assyrians in their place, but in the grammae, Hurrian cultic traditions and learning were preserved by the Hittites who introduced them into their capital at Hattusa in Anatolia.


The infinitive, which can also be found nominalised, is formed with the suffix -ummee. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. The language is also strongly ergative. The ggammar vowel of the noun stem is dropped before an attached possessive pronoun, e.

Internet URLs are the best. The negative suffixes 7the ergative person suffixes 8and the ergative number suffixes 9 merge in ways which are not entirely predictable, geammar the person endings are usually listed in separate singular and plural versions.

The suffixes of the first person, both plural and singular, and the second person plural suffix merge with the preceding suffixes -i and -wa. From inside the book.

Hurrian language – Wikipedia

No Hurrian texts are attested from the first millennium BC unless considering Urartian a late Hurrian dialectbut scattered loanwords persist in Assyrian, such as the goddess Savuska mentioned by Sargon II. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.

The first nominalised participle, the present participle, is characterised by the ending -iri or -iree. It was the only long Hurrian text known until a hurian collection of literature in Hurrian with a Hittite translation was discovered at Hattusas in The attested Hurrian lexicon is quite homogenous, containing only a small number of loanwords e.