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The excavations were conducted at settlement sites dated from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages. The only noticeable feature was preference for steppe game within the richer part of the settlement and one of the khanswhile in the poorer chhw and the other cchw wild animals were represented mainly by the riverine species: Crystallinity index is calculated by measuring the proportions of peaks on crystal diffracto- gram.

Weddellite and whewelite oxalate minerals occur in bones softened in oxalic acid solution. Journal of Archaeological Science 22, s.

abalone shell – Polish translation – Linguee

In the older literature if mollusc shells were most common among animal remains at archaeological sites, they were treated as the main component in the diet of the inhabitants Renfrew and Hodoela, I will underline that A. Freshwater mussels as a prehistoric food resource. The other type of division consisted of two groups: The long bones had signs of advanced decomposition processes.

In contrast to caves, remains of cave bears at open-air sites are rare. Baltic sturgeon is a source of valuable protein and grease. This call is related to time span from the 8th to almost 20th centuries, and problems are concerned to strate- gies of animal breeding, hunting, fishing, food supply and distribution, row materials recovery for manufacturing, culture and sociotopgraphy, biology of animals and environment reconstruction.

Baltic sturgeon Acipenser sturio L. American Antiquity 39 3: Bones of domestic hen were also represented, but without 14C dates we can not associate them with the Bronze Age. On the other hand, taphonomic results created a basis for reconstructing environmental conditions and understanding the daily cus- toms of the local communities.


Indian gerbil Tatera indica and an- other, larger rodent whose identification was not possible. Bone materials from Tell Leilan are not published yet and it is impossible to verify this observation.

This research revealed the irregularities in the structure of the bone tissue, making it the first pa- thology study of the Pleistocene animals from Poland. The envi- ronmental impact of some production systems cattle herding, horse breeding must have been consid- erable. Snails Garden Company, whose headquarter is in Polish Warmia and Mazury, is the undisputed leader in the Polish and foreign markets.

In addition to the modern collection, the published data Driesch; Gautier, Van Neer ; Van Neer supported species and anatomical identification as well. Archaeozoological studies of this cattle draws on many sources such as petrified and not petrified bones, rock art, and artifacts.

Zwierzęta użytkowe – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia

Fauna w Stradowie [in: The animals belonging to the above-mentioned species were either bred or hunted for meat. The investigated bone remains came from the Neolithic period and were located in barrows grave no. The non-migratory common seals Phoca vitulina were also hunted, and their biology compared to culling patterns in both Eastern and Hpdowla Norse settlements in Greenland, can give us a proxy for climatic conditions especially the summer sea ice distribution which seems to correspond to envi- ronmental data obtained from deep-sea cores.

The bone remains from grave no.

Breeding, selection and processing of edible snails in Poland

Further investigations were aimed at vertebrae, and long bone fragment. Cattle and pig brawn was also of great culinary interest. The experience gained during this period supported by good organization and properly equipped manufacturing facility allows us to offer the following range of products. At the end of the 3rd millennium BC it deteriorated llimakw a rural settlement ilmakw was only 5 ha in area. This suggests that the natural environment in this Early Neolithic settlement was much more diverse during that time than it is today.


Three pieces had side walls that were all-round cut. Its condition al- lowed for age estimation as Juvenis. This issue was analyzed using bone and horn spoons as examples.

SincePolish projects were aided with the professional archaeozoological analysis of the osteological material. It is ne- cessary to note, that all of them were the most valuable objects of trade.

Based on bone measurements it can be inferred that fallow deer was more common than Red deer, however we need to be cautious as some less char- acteristic bones in this group hodowlq belong to large antelopes. Four variables were used for the comparison: The percentage of pig, horse, and dog bones remains did not change considerably with time and was The main peaks high and the secondary ones low are shown.

Oysters and mussels first appeared in Poland in Early Medieval Times. Thank you very much for your vote! Most probably the majority of shell middens encountered in Poland consist of local species that be- long to freshwater bivalves of Unionidae family: Seasons of the year in a climatic zone will not cause significant changes in investigated diag- nostic values if temperature amplitude is not high between the seasons.

Besides two residen- tial areas, a bath, the city market, and two khans were cleared up until now. The oldest finds of eel and Baltic sturgeon originate from sediments dated to the 1st millennium BC, and salmonids and whitefish are only present in the 11th — the beginning of the 14th century.