Learn more about Citicoline uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Citicoline. Citicoline is approved in Europe and japan for use in stroke, head trauma and other neurological disorders. It is presently being evaluated in. The therapeutic action of citicoline is thought to be caused by stimulation of PtdCho synthesis in the injured brain, although the experimental evidence for this is.

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Citicoline (CDP-choline): mechanisms of action and effects in ischemic brain injury.

Citicoline INNalso known as cytidine diphosphate-choline CDP-Choline or cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine is an intermediate acion the generation of phosphatidylcholine from cholinea common biochemical process in cell membranes. Citicoline is naturally occurring in the cells of human and animal tissue, in particular the organs. Studies suggest mecbanism CDP-choline supplements increase dopamine receptor densities.

Citicoline is available as a supplement online and in stores. It is sold in over 70 countries under a variety of brand names: A review of published clinical trials of citicoline noted that while some studies have demonstrated positive effects of the compound on cognition, other studies have failed to confirm these results and additional clinical trials would be needed to confirm any potential benefits of citicoline.


Despite some suggestions that citicoline may reduce the rates of death and disability following an ischemic stroke[10] [11] the largest citicoline clinical trial to date, a randomised, placebo-controlled, sequential trial in patients with moderate-to-severe acute ischaemic stroke in Europe, enrolling patients, found no benefit of administering citicoline on survival or recovery from stroke. The effect of citicoline on visual function has been studied in patients with glaucoma. The neuroprotective effects exhibited by citicoline may be due to its preservation of cardiolipin and sphingomyelinpreservation of arachidonic acid content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolaminepartial restoration of phosphatidylcholine levels, and stimulation of glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity.

The brain preferentially uses choline to synthesize acetylcholine. This limits the amount of choline available to synthesize phosphatidylcholine. When the availability of choline is low or the need for acetylcholine increases, phospholipids containing choline can be catabolized from neuronal membranes.

These phospholipids include sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. This can lower levels of hydroxyl radicals produced after an ischemia and prevent mechanim from being catabolized by phospholipase A2. Citicoline enhances cellular communication by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine od, norepinephrineand dopamine. Citicoline lowers increased glutamate concentrations and raises decreased ATP concentrations induced by ischemia.

Citicoline also increases glutamate uptake by increasing expression of EAAT2a glutamate transporterin vitro in rat astrocytes. Citicoline has a very low toxicity profile in animals and humans. Minor transient adverse effects are rare and most commonly include stomach pain and diarrhea. Phosphatidylcholine is a major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes.


Close regulation of its biosynthesis, degradation, and mwchanism is essential to proper cell function.

Phosphatidylcholine is synthesized in vivo by two pathways. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Citicoline (CDP-choline): mechanisms of action and effects in ischemic brain injury.

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