The Bush- Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) is a standardised, quantifiable examination of catatonia designed to screen and diagnose. Tab. 1: According to the item Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS), here partially modified and partially reported, the severity of catatonia is. PDF | Objective: This article aims to describe the adaptation and translation process of the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) and.

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An unifying pathogenesis of catatonia that explains all motor, vegetative, and behavioral symptoms remains elusive.

Given that items grasp reflex and waxy flexibility had a zero variance, these items were excluded from the analysis. This review article will illustrate the need for a new rating scale to screen and detect catatonia as it occurs in a variety of healthcare settings.

Catatonic syndrome in a general psychiatric inpatient population: Results Catatonia Symptomatology Catatonic symptomatology was highly prevalent in our patient sample. This article is part of the Research Topic Psychomotor symptomatology in psychiatric illnesses. Furthermore, different symptom profiles were found, depending on the underlying psychopathology.

Catatonic symptomatology was highly prevalent in our patient sample. For screening, items are marked as absent 0 or present 3.

Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS)

Catatonia is a psychomotor symptom cluster characterized by a heterogeneous group of mental, motor, vegetative, and behavioral signs. Cambridge University Press; These results could mostly be explained by the fact that the SUD- and patient-OD ftancis hardly showed any catatonic symptomatology. In contrast, manic patients mainly displayed catatonic excitement, busg, depressed patients were characterized by catatonic inhibition in terms of stupor, mutism, and rigidity Validity was harder to assess because of the lack of established diagnostic criteria.


Cognitive symptoms like perseveration and affective symptoms like excitement were the most prevalent and their validity and specificity as catatonic features catayonia be questioned, especially in the more mild presentations. It should also be noted that the most prevalent catatonic symptoms were not the strictly motor symptoms, which mostly seem associated with the traditional view on catatonia.

While there are several catatonia rating scales, these scales are not routinely taught or ccatatonia in educational programs as valuable diagnostic instruments. Prevalence and clinical significance of catatonic symptoms in mania. And finally, psychiatric educators rarely include catatonic signs as an important component of their curriculum.

The presence of two or more of the screening items for 24 hours or longer meets the diagnosis for catatonia proposed by Bush et al.

The Detection and Measurement of Catatonia

Many clinicians believe that catatonia is not seen anymore. To assess for Echopraxia, the examiner scratches his head in an exaggerated way.


International Universities Press The problems with the detection and measurement of catatonia have been summarized by Caroff and Ungvari. In a study of catatonic adolescents, automatic obedience and stereotypies were significantly more associated with schizophrenic than they were with non-schizophrenic catatonia Stuivenga M and Morrens M Prevalence of the catatonic syndrome in an acute inpatient sample.

The lack of precise definitions and validity of catatonia has hindered the detection of catatonia, thus delaying diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Second, motor signs related to volition will are subject to psychological interpretations instead of careful observation and description i.

The Detection and Measurement of Catatonia

Similarly, six patients received a diagnosis of personality disorder 4. Dementia Praecox or Group of Schizophrenias []. Deister A, Marneros A.

The PANSS is a widely used medical scale for measuring symptom severity of patients with schizophrenia. Out of the total patient group, 88 Recognition of catatonia requires application of a rating scale for catatonia.

Some patients would still score 3 to 12 points even when clinical improvement has catafonia. Front Psychiatry 5: