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The concept first appeared in Jay Forrester ‘s Industrial Dynamics [1] and thus it is also known as the Forrester effect.


While successful in generating the desired market pull, manufacturing did not know about the promotional plans. Another prerequisite is that all members of a supply chain recognize that they can gain more if they act as a whole which requires trustful collaboration and information sharing.

Lee, Hau L; Padmanabhan, V. You effekt help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. In theory, the bullwhip effect does not occur if all orders exactly meet the demand of each period.

In addition to greater safety stocks, the described effect can lead to either inefficient production or excessive inventory, as each producer needs to fulfill the demand of its customers in the supply chain. This also leads to a low utilization of the distribution channel.

Human Factors in Supply Chain Management.

Because customer demand is rarely perfectly stable, businesses must forecast demand to properly position inventory and other resources. The concept of “cumulative quantities” is a method that can tackle and even avoid the bull-whip-effect. This method is developed and practised mainly in the German automotive industry, with its expanded supply chains [4] and is established in several EDI-formats between OEMs and their suppliers.


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Moreover, repeated hiring and dismissal of employees to manage the demand variability induces further costs due to training bullwuip possible lay-offs. In periods of falling demand, orders fall or stop, thereby not reducing inventory. Why Supply Chain Management is so Difficult”. The bullwhip effect is a distribution channel phenomenon in which forecasts yield supply chain inefficiencies.

In a similar manner, forecast accuracy decreases as one moves upstream along the supply chain. This demand information is used to queue shipments from the Wal-Mart distribution center to the store and from the supplier to the Wal-Mart distribution center. July Learn how and when to remove bulwlhip template message. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.

Human factors influencing the behavior in supply chains are largely unexplored.

This page was last edited on 24 Octoberat Effeit Read Edit View history. The further from the originating signal, the greater the distortion of the wave pattern. The effect is that variations are amplified as one moves upstream in the supply chain further from the customer.


Articles lacking in-text citations from July All articles lacking in-text citations All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Buolwhip needing cleanup from August All pages needing cleanup Articles with sections that need to be turned into prose from August In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Better information leads to better inventory bullehip and lower costs throughout the supply chain. Instead, they read the increase in sales as an indication of growing demand for green cars and ramped up production.

In addition to the financially hard measurable consequences of poor customer services and the damage to public image and loyalty, an organization has to cope with the ramifications of failed fulfillment which may include contractual penalties. The result is near-perfect visibility of customer demand and inventory movement throughout the supply chain. This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose.

Editing help is available. This is consistent with findings of supply chain experts who have recognized effetk the bullwhip effect is a problem in forecast-driven supply chains, and careful management of the effect is an important goal for supply chain managers.