API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Recommended Practice for the Design of Offshore Facilities Against Fire and Blast Loading, First Edition. American Petroleum Institute (API) First Edition, April 76p. This document provides guidelines and recommended practice for the satisfactory design of.

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Risk level Large scale testing in recent years has highlighted that significantly higher overpressures can occur as a result of an ignition of a hydrocarbon in a typical offshore module with realistic levels of congestion and confinement. Advanced search Show search help.

More emphasis on requirements for providing inherent safety is now 2ffb. Generally speaking, guidance for the offshore area is still evolving. The performance standard required for these elements and systems should be clear to encapsulate not just the blast wall capacity, but the connections to the primary structure and the ep of the primary structure, and be subject to scrutiny associated with the verification scheme for the installation. Projects with accelerated engineering, procurement, and construction EPC schedules are becoming common in the oil and gas industry with Oil Majors keen on quick and guaranteed returns on investment.

Post Piper, several bars of pressure were found to be a real possibility with realistic levels of congestion and confinement.

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Full scale tests on realistic modules and congestion confinement levels carried out on joint industry projects have shown that the severity of the threat is more severe and complex than originally envisaged.

You can visit our cookie privacy page for more information. Robustness of the integrity should be measured against the resilience of the structure to resist these loads with suitable margins to cater for the uncertainties in the load estimation, the modelling schem chosen, and the material properties of the materials used. A – switch to normal size A – switch to large size A – switch to larger size.

Structural behaviour under explosion hazards

This was sponsored by 28 companies and the Health and safety Executive in order to improve understanding in the characteristics of hydrocarbon fires and explosions. A fire and blast information group was subsequently established through which a number of important technical notes have been published.


Ongoing operational safety shall be demonstrated by appropriate design capacity in conjunction with an appropriate integrity management system to ensure degradation is kept within acceptable qpi.

Care is required in converting back to the actual structure to ensure the additional stresses are captured, particularly at support locations of both the beam and at equipment support points Non-linear finite element analysis The most complex and extensive structural modelling process adopted is the finite element method which can potentially capture all of the non-linear material and geometric behaviour together with the dynamics.

This can potentially lead to larger gas cloud sizes as they would not be limited by the volume of the module as on a fixed topside. Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U. The most prominent leak scenarios for the study were considered as a part of the simplified approach in lieu of considering exhaustive scenario combinations based on different leak sizes, weather parameters, leak directions, etc.

Log in to your subscription Username. In some cases this can lead to ignoring the low probability high consequence events.

The magnitude of the explosion loads for which the installation is designed should reflect the residual risks to persons on the installation from explosion in line with the ALARP principle.

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About us Contact us Help Terms of use. Peer reviewed only Published between: Worldwide practice Prior to the Piper Alpha incident inlimited design guidance for offshore structures to limit the consequences of fires and explosions existed.

This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and installation of new piping systems on production platforms located offshore. Some packages can also potentially capture contact, brittle and ductile behaviour of the structure. Successfully dealing with extreme uncertain events has been shown in the past to be dependent on good engineering practice, as well as appropriate QRA, such as providing continuity between elements, ductile details which avoid high stress concentrations at critical points weld details wpi example so that the structure can take up the energy of the blast by stable deformations and plasticity.


This recommended practice is intended to assist in development of 2fv management program designed to promote rl and environmental protection during the performance of offshore oil and gas and sulphur operations. The latest industry based guidance which is currently in use is the API Recommended Practice 2FB for design of offshore facilities against fire and blast loading.

Background Prior to the Piper Alpha incident, structural design to limit the consequences of a hydrocarbon explosion was mainly confined to constructing blast walls in the well bay area. Health and Safety Executive. The methodology adopted was to conduct a risk assessment for a typical bid to arrive at the sound cost estimate ro the fire protection systems.

Duty holders must demonstrate that structures gp sufficient robustness to ensure a low probability of catastrophic failure when subjected to accidental explosions.

API Standards List

Little consideration had therefore been given to explosion scenarios on many older fixed structures. 2gb have been shown to act as stress raisers and potential failure sources, even at low pressures.

This publication is designed to serve as a direct field aid in well control and as a technical source for teaching This RP presents recommendations for minimizing the likelihood of having an accidental fire, and for designing, inspecting, and maintaining fire control systems. Also the option of minimising congested areas by splitting up the processing into smaller units and introducing sufficient gaps between the units is unlikely due to space constraints and economics. Examples of evidence Some generic advice on ap that may be used to assess response are: The purpose of these recommended practices is to provide information that can serve as a voluntary industry guide for safe apj control operations.

Other valuable documents include the Norsok standards and the GEE JIP project which resulted in the publication of an important handbook.