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Programmable Array Logic PAL is a family of programmable logic device semiconductors used to implement logic functions in digital circuits introduced by Monolithic MemoriesInc.

MMI in March The trademark is currently held by Lattice Semiconductor. PAL devices consisted of a small PROM programmable read-only memory core and additional output logic used to datasheeet particular desired 16l-25cn functions with few components.

Using specialized machines, PAL devices were “field-programmable”. PALs were available in several variants:. In most applications, electrically-erasable GALs are now deployed as pin-compatible direct replacements for one-time programmable PALs. PALs were not the first commercial programmable logic devices; Xatasheet had been selling its field programmable logic array FPLA since These devices were completely unfamiliar to most circuit designers and were perceived to be too difficult to use.

The FPLA had a relatively slow maximum operating speed due to having both programmable-AND and programmable-OR arrayswas expensive, and had a poor reputation for testability. Another factor limiting the acceptance of the FPLA was the large package, a mil 0.

His experience with standard logic led him to believe that user programmable devices would be more attractive to users if the devices were designed to replace standard logic.

This meant that the package sizes had to be more typical of the existing devices, and the speeds had to be improved. This threatened the viability datashete the PAL as a commercial product and they were forced to license the product line to National Semiconductor.

The programmable logic plane is a programmable read-only memory PROM array that allows the signals present on the devices pins or the logical complements of those signals to be routed to an output logic macrocell.


Programmable Array Logic

PAL devices have arrays of transistor cells datwsheet in a “fixed-OR, programmable-AND” plane used to implement ” sum-of-products ” binary logic equations for each datasyeet the outputs in terms of the inputs and either synchronous or asynchronous feedback from the outputs. The pin PALs had 10 inputs and 8 outputs.

The outputs were active low and could be registered or combinational. Prior to the introduction of the “V” for “variable” series, the types of OLMCs available in each L were fixed at the time of manufacture.

Each output could have up to 8 product terms effectively AND gateshowever the combinational outputs used one of the terms to control a bidirectional output buffer. There were other combinations that had fewer outputs with more product terms per output and were datashwet with active high outputs.

The 16X8 family or registered devices had an XOR gate before the register. There were also similar pin versions of these PALs.

This fixed output structure often frustrated designers attempting to optimize the utility of PAL devices because output structures of different types were often required by their applications. For example, one could not get 5 registered outputs with 3 datasheey high combinational outputs. The number of product terms allocated to an output datashest from 8 to This one device could replace all of the 24 pin fixed function PAL devices.

In addition to single-unit device programmers, device feeders and gang programmers were often dataheet when more than just a few PALs needed to be programmed. For large volumes, electrical 168l-25cn costs could be eliminated by having the manufacturer fabricate a custom metal mask used to program the customers’ patterns at the time of manufacture; MMI used the term ” hard array logic ” HAL to refer to devices programmed in this way.

These were computer-assisted design CAD now referred to as ” electronic design automation ” programs which translated or “compiled” the designers’ logic equations into binary fuse map files used to program and often test each device.


MMI made the source code available to users at datzsheet cost. It was used to express boolean equations for the output pins in a text file which was then converted to the ‘fuse map’ file for the programming system using a vendor-supplied program; later the option of translation from schematics became common, and later still, ‘fuse maps’ could be ‘synthesized’ from an HDL hardware description language such as Verilog.

It was the first commercial design tool that supported multiple PLD families. After fusing, the outputs of the PAL could be verified if test vectors were entered in the source file.

National Semiconductor was a “second source” of GAL parts.

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Larger-scale programmable logic devices were introduced by AtmelLattice Semiconductorand others. Another large programmable logic device is the ” field-programmable gate array ” or FPGA. These are devices currently made by Intel who acquired Altera and Xilinx and other semiconductor manufacturers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Programmable logic array. A registered trademark was granted on April 29,registration number United States Patent and Trademark Office online database.

April [February ]. Programmable Logic Designer’s Guide.

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In September Assisted Technology released version 1. An early pre-release datasheet for CUPL.

First used instatus Active. Retrieved August 10, Retrieved May 13, Retrieved from ” https: Electronic design automation Gate arrays. Views Read Edit View history.

16L784IV, 16L788CQ, 16L8

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